Intelligence itself is a very loaded issue. If human standards for intelligence are applied to non-human animals, however, dolphins come very close to our own brain aptitude levels, suggests Emory University dolphin expert Lori Marino.
How do we define intelligence?
SETI, the Search for Dolphin intelligence and interaction with humans Intelligence, clearly equates intelligence with technology or, more precisely, the building of radio or laser beacons. By that definition, a dolphin, lacking limbs to create and manipulate complex tools, cannot possibly be described as intelligent.
Technology is certainly linked to intelligence — you need to be smart to build a computer or an aircraft or a radio telescope — but technology does not define intelligence. It is just a manifestation of it, perhaps one of many.
The dictionary defines intelligence as the ability to learn, while others see it as the capacity to reason, to empathize, to solve problems and consider complex ideas, and to interact socially. Intelligence in the universe If we take these characteristics to be a broad working definition of intelligence, our view of intelligent life in the universe suddenly looks very different.
No longer are we confined to considering only life that has technology. However, what a wider definition of intelligence tells us is that we are not alone, not even on our own planet Earth.
Professor Robin Dunbar, an anthropologist and evolutionary psychologist from the University of Oxford, was one of the first to put forward the theory that the evolution of intelligence is driven by social factors, allowing animals to survive, interact and prosper in large and complex social groupings.
Looking at it that way, modern social networking on media such as Facebook may just be a symptom of what helped drive us to become intelligent in the first place, many tens of thousands of years ago. Staying quiet is anti-social. Personal interactions require communication, of some form, and the more complex the interaction, the more complex the communication.
So if intelligence and social behavior is linked — and many people agree that it is — then the best place to start looking for intelligence is in animals that like to chat with one another. And that brings us to dolphins.
Ever since the s, when John Lilly popularized the notion that dolphins may be cleverer than your average animal, dolphin intelligence has courted controversy, tempted us with tantalizing but thin evidence, and remained elusive.
We know they are able to communicate by a variety of means, from whistles and barks to echo location, and researchers working with captive dolphins have discovered that they understand syntax, i. As Carl Sagan once famously said, "It is of interest to note that while some dolphins are reported to have learned English — up to 50 words used in correct context — no human being has been reported to have learned dolphinese.
Referential signaling involves tagging things with names, such as having a specific whistle to identify sharks, or fishing boats, or food.
He applies a statistical analysis technique called information theory to languages in order to determine their complexity. Information theory was developed in the s by the mathematician and cryptologist Claude Shannon, mainly to be applied to the then-burgeoning technology of telecommunications.
George Zipf, a linguist at Harvard, realized that language is just the conveyance of information, and therefore could be broken down too. Think of all the different sounds human beings make as they speak to each other, the different letters and pronunciations. Plot these on a graph, in order of the most frequently occurring letters or sounds, and the points form a slope with a —1 gradient.
A toddler learning to speak will have a steeper slope — as they experiment with words they use fewer sounds but say them more often. What is remarkable is that putting dolphin whistles through the information theory blender renders exactly the same result: This tells us that dolphins have structure to how they communicate.
Meanwhile, another feature of information theory, called Shannon entropy, can tell us how complex that communication is. Doyle makes the analogy to marching soldiers. Imagine one hundred soldiers on parade, walking in all different directions across a field.
Then they are called to attention, and form ten neat rows of ten. Prior to the call to attention, when they are marching randomly, they have maximum entropy, maximum disorder, maximum complexity. Once they are lined up structure is imposed on them; their entropy decreases as does their complexity when coupled with a corresponding increase in structure.
Language is the same. Write down words on one hundred pieces of paper and throw them into the air and they can be arranged in myriad ways. Impose rules on them, such as sentence structure, and your choices automatically narrow.
Shannon entropy is defined as this application of order over data and the resulting predictability of that order.
Dolphin intelligence tests Doyle has analyzed many forms of communication with information theory, from the chemical signals of plants to the rapid-fire radio transmissions of air traffic control. How do dolphins fare? The problem with studying dolphin communication is being able to study them for any great length of time out in the wild, which requires patience and money.The issue is made more complex as humans tend to measure intelligence against their own understanding of it.
Although it may not be directly meaningful, in terms of brain size, the bottlenose dolphin brain averages kg in size, by comparison, the average human brain weighs about kg and a chimpanzee’s brain weighs kg. Dolphin Intelligence.
Breaking the communication barrier between dolphins and humans. Taking Back Detroit.
With its bankruptcy in the rearview mirror, the Motor City is attracting investors. Dolphin Intelligence.
1 Pages Words. DOLPHINS INTELLIGENCE AND INTERACTION WITH HUMANS Overview Dolphins are known to be one of the most intelligent species of animals. The director of dolphin research at Baltimore's National Aquarium retraces the path by which science has come to understand dolphin intelligence.A committed activist on behalf of dolphin welfare, Reiss provides an account of her personal journey and the history of the development of proofs of the creatures’ high intelligence.
The brain cortex also has the same complicated folds associated with human intelligence. Dolphins have long been known for their intelligence. However it had been believed that chimps - who can. About Dolphin Lodge Bali. Dolphin lodge Bali is located in Serangan island near of Sanur.
Our Dolphin lodge is designed by floating pool in the Ocean, it's means that all of the dolphins stay alive in the sea / their habitat (instead of chlorinated water).